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  1. Access Control: Restricting access to resources based on user identity, role, or privileges.

  2. Adaptive Email Attack: adaptive email hacks involve continuous learning and adaptation based on the interaction with the target.

  3. Algorithm: A set of instructions for encrypting, decrypting, or processing data.

  4. Anti-Virus (AV): Software that detects and removes malware.

  5. APT - Advanced Persistent Threat - Complex Hacking Campaign with Multiple Layers and Methods to Accomplish the Goal.

  6. Authentication: Verifying user identities through passwords, biometrics, or tokens.

  7. Authorization: Granting access to resources based on user privileges.

  8. Availability Threat: An attack on a system or network that disrupts access to those systems. 

  9. Backdoor: A secret entry point in software or hardware for unauthorized access.

  10. Botnet: A network of compromised devices for distributed attacks.

  11. Blue Team: Refers to the group of cybersecurity professionals within an organization responsible for defending against cyber attacks. 

  12. Brute Force Attack: Guessing passwords or encryption keys through exhaustive attempts.

  13. Buffer Overflow: Exploiting software vulnerabilities by overflowing data buffers.

  14. BYOD (Bring Your Own Device): Allowing personal devices for work or access to organizational resources.

  15. Cloud Security: Protecting data and applications in cloud-based environments.

  16. Cryptography: Techniques for secure data transmission and encryption.

  17. Confidentiality Threat: actual event that jeopardizes the privacy and secrecy of sensitive information, leading to unauthorized access, or disclosure.

  18. Cyber Attack: Any malicious activity targeting computer systems or networks.

  19. Cybersecurity: Practices and technologies for protecting digital assets.

  20. Data Breach: Unauthorized access or theft of sensitive information.

  21. Data Encryption: Converting data into a secure, unreadable format.

  22. Data Loss Prevention (DLP): Monitoring and controlling data movement and access.

  23. Deep Fake: refers to synthetic media—typically images, videos, or audio—generated or altered using artificial intelligence & machine learning;

  24. Denial of Service (DoS): Overwhelming systems with traffic to make them unavailable.

  25. Digital Signature: Verifying authenticity and integrity of digital messages or documents.

  26. Disaster Recovery: Restoring systems and data after a disaster or outage.

  27. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS): Large-scale DoS attacks from multiple sources.

  28. DNS (Domain Name System): Translating domain names to IP addresses.

  29. Encryption: Converting data into a secure, unreadable format.

  30. Endpoint Security: Protecting individual devices and endpoints from threats.

  31. Ethical Hacking: Simulating cyber attacks to test defenses and identify vulnerabilities.

  32. Exploit: Taking advantage of software or hardware vulnerabilities.

  33. Firewall: Network device or software blocking unauthorized access.

  34. GenAI Governance: Framework of policies, processes, and controls established to ensure the responsible development, deployment, and use of AI.

  35. GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation): EU regulation for personal data protection.

  36. Hacking: Unauthorized access or malicious activity on computer systems.

  37. Hash Function: Generating a digital fingerprint for data authentication.

  38. Heuristic Attack: approach in hacking often involve trial and error, pattern recognition, and leveraging known weaknesses in systems to gain entry.

  39. Identity and Access Management (IAM): Managing user identities and access.

  40. Incident Response: Responding to and managing cybersecurity incidents.

  41. Insider Threat: Threats to security from within an organization.

  42. Integrity Threat: Potential or actual event that compromises the accuracy, consistency, and trustworthiness of data or information.

  43. Intellectual Property (IP): Legal rights to creations and innovations.

  44. Internet of Things (IoT): Network of physical devices with internet connectivity.

  45. Intrusion Detection System (IDS): Monitoring network traffic for signs of unauthorized access.

  46. Intrusion Prevention System (IPS): Blocking suspicious network traffic.

  47. Keylogger: Software or hardware capturing keystrokes.

  48. Malware: Software designed to harm or exploit systems.

  49. Man-in-the-Middle (MitM): Intercepting communication between two parties.

  50. Network Security: Protecting network infrastructure and traffic.

  51. Next-Generation Firewall (NGFW): Advanced firewall with additional features.

  52. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology): US organization for technology standards.

  53. Password Cracking: Guessing or decrypting passwords.

  54. Patch Management: Updating software with security patches.

  55. Penetration Testing: Simulating cyber attacks to test defenses.

  56. Phishing: Tricking users into revealing sensitive information.

  57. Privilege Escalation: Exploiting vulnerabilities to gain higher privileges.

  58. Ransomware: Malware demanding payment in exchange for data restoration.

  59. Remote Access: Accessing systems or networks from a remote location.

  60. Risk Management: Identifying and mitigating potential security risks.

  61. Rootkit: Software hiding malware or unauthorized access.

  62. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL): Encrypting data in transit.

  63. Security Information and Event Management (SIEM): Monitoring and analyzing security-related data.

  64. Security Operations Center (SOC): Centralized security monitoring and incident response.

  65. Social Engineering: Manipulating individuals into revealing sensitive information.

  66. Spyware: Software secretly monitoring user activity.

  67. SQL Injection: Injecting malicious code into databases.

  68. Threat Intelligence: Gathering and analyzing threat data for improved security.

  69. Trojan Horse: Malicious software disguised as legitimate software.

  70. Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): Verifying identities with two forms of authentication.

  71. Vulnerability: Weaknesses in software or hardware that can be exploited.

  72. Web Application Firewall (WAF): Protecting web applications from attacks.

  73. Worm: A type of malicious software program that replicates itself to spread to other computers.

  74. Zero-Day Exploit: Attacking previously unknown vulnerabilities.

  75. Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): Verifying identities with two forms of authentication.

  76. Vulnerability: Weaknesses in software or hardware that can be exploited.

Cybersecurity by the Numbers

Cyber Attacks
2023 in Million


Threat Protection


Avg Cost in Cyber Attack


Attacks Per Day


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